The saffron is a herbaceous, vivacious and bulbous plant, high of 10 to 20 cm, with flowers of crimson or lilac purple color, often subspontanÃ©e. It blooms in September or October and one harvests stigmas oranges of the flower. The pulled onions and let to the dry to the free air bloom as well as planted, and the bulb provides a healthy and nourishing starch.
Cycle of development
The saffron initiates its cycle of development from its cloths mÃ©ristÃ©matiqueses after a period of dormance lasting which there is neither division nor cellular differentiation. The bulb is an underground organ covered with tunics that protect it against the excessive losses of water and the mechanical lesions. The development of mÃ©ristÃ¨meses giving birth to the new bulbs immediately begins after flowering (in fall). Every newly formed bulb is enveloped of a tunic of the bulb that gave him birth. It possesses one or two buds apicauxes to leave of which makes himself the production of the new leaves of the floral axis and one or two bulbs sons. In its bottom part, the related bulb produced 4 to 5 secondary buds placed of an irregular manner on the bulb but according to a spiral shape (Face 1, to see PDF file). The secondary buds produce an axis cauliniaire with leaves in tuft. The derivative bulbilleses of these buds are smaller than the descended bulbs of buds apicauxes. Therefore, every related bulb gives one to two, sometimes three bulbs sons from buds apicauxes and several bulbilleses from the lateral buds. Often, one to 2 years are necessary so that these bulbilleses reach the caliber criticizes for their flowering.
Between September and February, the different organ growth continues but very slowly. During this period, leaves and roots develop dragging itself the accumulation of reserves to the level of the bulb what is determining for its final caliber as well as the quality and the number of flowers produced.
This phase lasts 5 to 6 months and require some low temperatures. Some too elevated temperatures can reduce it and can interrupt its good progress what would affect the development of the bulb negatively and therefore flowering and the production.
Generally, at the saffron, the transition of the vegetative phase to the reproductive phase takes place to the month of March, what constitutes a period criticizes during the development of the plant. It is a phase of activity mitotique accelerated characterized by an increase of divisions and cellular differentiations. This intense multiplication is come with of an increase in the metabolic activity of the plant.
Period of rest
In April, the new bulbs are formed completely and their measurements will remain unaltered (not of increase of weight or caliber). leaves fade and dry up. With the arrival of the period of the strong heats, the plant nearly enters in a phase of progressive slowing until a stop total of the metabolic activity. It is the phase of vegetative rest or dormance.
Verses end August, the bulb Â«wakes upÂ» and its metabolic activity increases. Some bulb emerges one or several important diameter talleses to the basis with a very narrow leaf tuft. The floral primordiases change in floral organs and the process of flowering ends by the exit of the flower whose initiation had taken place at the time of the transition of the plant of a vegetative state to a floral state and whose progression is under the control of hormones and factors of the middle.
Hormones of growth play a primordial role in the floral development of the plant. Applications of gibbÃ©rellines to different periods during the growth of the plant show that the contribution of June (bulb in dormance) permits an acceleration of the leaf growth, increase measurements of leaves and roots and improve the number of flowers produced and therefore, the output in dry weight of stigmas.
Factors of the middle also play an important role on the floral initiation. The saffron is a plant of day runs and require of days whose photopÃ©riode is lower to 11 hours and half to bloom. If the plant is cultivated in a middle where the length of the photopÃ©riode is longer during the floral initiation period, the plant will remain permanently in a vegetative state.
In the essential oil, one finds the safranal (2,2,4-trimÃ©thylcyclohexa-1,3-Ã¨ne) to 50%, of terpÃ¨neses (pinÃ¨ne and cinÃ©ol), of the picrocrocine (4-hydroxy-2,2,4-trimÃ©thylcyclohex-1-Ã¨ne) that is responsible of the slightly bitter taste and carotÃ¨noideses, particularly the crocÃ©tine and the crocine (diester of gentobiose with the acidic crocÃ©tine) responsible of the color.
|Belo rice recipe saffron and ginger|
|Chicken flavored with saffron|
|Chicken and rice with saffron|
|Chicken and saffron rice|
|Drug extracted from saffron that can kill tumours|
|The Medicine Hunter: Eating Saffron Could Lower Alzheimer's Risk|
|Dr Oz: Saffron Kills Cancer|
|Best Natural Anti-Depressants|